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The main sub-field of bio technology is as follows:

Red biotechnology:
This is the field of biotechnology applied to medical processes. Some examples are the designing of organisms to produce antibiotics, and the engineering of genetic cures to cure diseases through genomic manipulation.

White biotechnology:
Also known as grey biotechnology is biotechnology applied to industrial processes. An example is the designing of an organism to produce a useful chemical. White biotechnology tends to consume less in resources than traditional processes when used to produce industrial goods.

Green biotechnology:
This field is applied to agricultural processes. An example is the designing of transgenic plants to grow under specific environmental conditions or in the presence (or absence) of certain agricultural chemicals. One hope is that green biotechnology might produce more environmentally friendly solutions than traditional industrial agriculture like the engineering of a plant to express a pesticide, thereby eliminating the need for external application of pesticides. An example is the Bt corn. There is considerable debate over the environment friendly nature of such crops.

Bioinformatics:
This is an interdisciplinary field which could be rightly termed as the most happening field of biotechnology. The field which is also often referred to as computational biology, addresses biological problems using computational techniques. It plays a key role in various areas like functional genomics, structural genomics, and proteomics amongst others, and forms a key component in biotechnology and pharmaceutical sector.

Bioinformatics make use of techniques from applied mathematics, informatics, statistics, and computer science to solve biological problems. A common thread in projects in bioinformatics and computational biology is the use of mathematical tools to extract useful information from noisy data produced by high-throughput biological techniques such as genomics (The field of data mining overlaps with computational biology in this regard). A representative problem in bioinformatics is the assembly of high-quality DNA sequences from fragmentary "shotgun" DNA sequencing, while in computational biology a representative problem might be statistical testing of a hypothesis of common gene regulation using data from mRNA microarrays or mass spectrometry.

Blue biotechnology:
The term blue biotechnology has been used to describe the marine and aquatic applications of biotechnology, but its use is relatively rare.

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